This is a complete hands-on tutorial for setting up an AWS EC2 instance for production using Docker, Portainer, Ngnix Reverse Proxy Manager & Cloudflare DNS. This is the first blog of the series further important topics such as VPC, Load Balancing etc... will be covered in a future blog post on this topic.
Do first, understand later. That is the approach here. If you are new to some of these technologies, don’t worry about it. Just follow along, and dive into topics afterwards.
In this guide, we will:
- Setup a basic AWS EC2 Ubuntu 18.04 LTS/20.04 LTS instance.
- Setup Docker and Docker-Compose on Ubuntu instance.
- Running Portainer on Docker.
- Running Ngnix Reverse Proxy Manager on Docker.
- Setting up a domain on Cloudflare and setting up proxy settings.
- Access Portainer and Ngnix Reverse Proxy Manage using respective sub-domain.
What you will need:
- A AWS billing enabled account. (aws.amazon.com)
- A Cloudflare account with a domain registered. (cloudflare.com)
What is Docker?
Docker is an open-source project which provides the ability to create, package, and run applications in loosely isolated and contained environments called containers.
With all the isolation and security provided by the Docker platform, it allows you to run many containers simultaneously on a particular host.
Reasons Why Docker Containers Are Widely Adopted Includes
It allows developers to write code locally and share the work with their team using Containers.
They can push their applications into the test environments, which are the containers and execute automated tests.
When bugs are found, they can be fixed within the development environment and then redeploy.
Getting a fix is as simple as pushing an updated image to the production environment.
AWS EC2 Ubuntu Instance Setup
Head over to the official AWS website aws.amazon.com
Check AWS Official Docs for account setup. Kindly set up billing alerts so, that AWS doesn't charge you for using their services.
After the setup AWS console will open up. Please find the search bar at the top search for ec2. Select the first option.
Here, you will find all the details of ec2 instances running.
AWS Security Groups help you secure your cloud environment by controlling how traffic will be allowed into your EC2 machines. With Security Groups, you can ensure that all the traffic that flows at the instance level is only through your established ports and protocols.
An Elastic IP address is a static, public IPv4 address designed for dynamic cloud computing. You can associate an Elastic IP address with an instance or network interface in any VPC in your account.
Head over to instances(running) or instances option. At the top, you will find options such as Connect, Instance State, Actions and Launch Instance. Click on Launch Instance
In the above image, you can see that one instance is running. In your case, it will be empty as you haven't created any instance yet.
Now, we have the list of all images we will be going with Ubuntu 20.04 LTS as most of them are aware of terminals commands and basic knowledge of how to work with Ubuntu.
Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS (HVM), SSD Volume Type - ami-05ba3a39a75be1ec4 (64-bit x86) / ami-075ebde7b27c12bc0 (64-bit Arm)
Now, the next steps would be configuring the instances as per our needs. For instance type select t2.micro (as it comes under the free tier). Instance configuration on default settings. For storage, the default is 8GB it could be scaled up to 30GB. Tag is optional this is required if you have set up a billing limit to monitor the costing and resources.
The next step is the important step to configure security groups. By default port, 22 ie SSH will be enabled. Similarly, enable the following ports.
SSH: The Secure Shell Protocol is a cryptographic network protocol for operating network services securely over an unsecured network. (PORT 22)
HTTP: The Hypertext Transfer Protocol is an application layer protocol in the Internet protocol suite model for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. (PORT 80)
HTTPS: Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure is an extension of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol. It is used for secure communication over a computer network and is widely used on the Internet. (PORT 443)
Portainer Control Panel: This requires a Custom TCP Port 9443.
Ngnix Reverse Proxy Manager: This requires a Custom TCP Port of 81 to access its control panel.
Source for HTTP, HTTPS must be Anywhere whereas SSH, TCP PORT 9443, and TCP PORT 81 could be changed to My IP or could be removed as well after Reverse Proxy is setup.
After this click on Review and Launch to verify all the configurations are correct after which click on the Launch button. This will evoke a modal to create a Key Pair.
This key is very important without this we can't access the instance via SSH. Choose to Create a new key pair option with Key pair type either RSA or ED25519 also enter a key pair name to identify the key pair. I'll be naming the key pair as hashnode.
Now, click on the download key pair button this will download a file with the name hashnode.cer or hashnode.pem . Later we will be using this key to access the instance using SSH. After this clicking on the launch instance will create an instance for us with the mentioned configurations.
Now, head over to EC2 Console and click on the Elastic IPs option. In the top bar, you will find an option called Allocate Elastic IP address click on that then click on Allocate. Now, Amazon will allocate us an IPv4 address from Amazon's Pool.
Now, you will find a top success bar button called Associate thus Elastic IP address click on that option. This will associate this elastic IP with our instance which we created some time ago.
Select the required instance id and Private IP address then tick mark if required on Allow this Elastic IP address to be associated. Then click on the Associate button to apply the necessary changes.
Now, once the IP address is successfully associated head over to EC2 Instance Panel and you will be able to see the instance in running state. Now, we need to connect to this instance using SSH to get the required command to connect to the instance select the instance and click on Connect option which is on the top bar.
Slide over to the SSH Client option wherein you will find the required command to connect to the instance. Follow the below-listed steps carefully
- Open an SSH client. (Eg Any terminal/ Putty)
- Locate your private key file. The key used to launch this instance is hashnode.pem/hashnode.cer
- Run this command, if necessary, to ensure your key is not publicly viewable.
chmod 400 hashnode.cer
- Connect to your instance using its Public DNS:
ssh -i "hashnode.cer" email@example.com
Last step of this section we are supposed to connect to the instance using SSH. Now first, run the chmod command. Then using SSH establish a connection between your system and cloud instance.
In Unix and Unix-like operating systems, chmod is the command and system call used to change the access permissions of file system objects sometimes known as modes.
Initially, when we run the command it will verify the signature. Type 'yes' to verify it then you will be successfully connected to the cloud instance or the ec2 instance.
Now, let's update and upgrade all the Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS. To do the same run the below listed commands one after the other.
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
Now, the cloud instance is successfully set up and ready for further steps.
Check out the official docker documentation to install Docker on Ubuntu or run the below commands one after the other.
Install using the Repository
Before you install Docker Engine for the first time on a new host machine, you need to set up the Docker repository. Afterwards, you can install and update Docker from the repository.
Set up the repository
- Update the apt package index and install packages to allow apt to use a repository over HTTPS:
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install \ ca-certificates \ curl \ gnupg \ lsb-release
- Add Docker’s official GPG key:
curl -fsSL https://download.docker.com/linux/ubuntu/gpg | sudo gpg --dearmor -o /usr/share/keyrings/docker-archive-keyring.gpg
- Use the following command to set up the stable repository. To add the nightly or test repository, add the word nightly or test (or both) after the word stable in the commands below.
echo \ "deb [arch=$(dpkg --print-architecture) signed-by=/usr/share/keyrings/docker-archive-keyring.gpg] https://download.docker.com/linux/ubuntu \ $(lsb_release -cs) stable" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/docker.list > /dev/null
Install Docker Engine
- Update the apt package index, and install the latest version of Docker Engine, containers, and Docker Compose, or go to the next step to install a specific version:
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install docker-ce docker-ce-cli containerd.io docker-compose-plugin
- Run the below command to check the version of docker installed this also verifies that docker has been successfully installed
Reference - Docker Documentation
- First, create the volume that Portainer Server will use to store its database:
sudo docker volume create portainer_data
- Then, download and install the Portainer Server container:
sudo docker run -d -p 9443:9443 --name portainer \ --restart=always \ -v /var/run/docker.sock:/var/run/docker.sock \ -v portainer_data:/data \ portainer/portainer-ce:2.9.3
Now, Portainer is successfully set up and it's running on detach mode. To check the running containers run the below command.
sudo docker ps
The output will be something like this
CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES 11d36a8067a8 portainer/portainer-ce:2.9.3 "/portainer" About a minute ago Up About a minute 8000/tcp, 9000/tcp, 0.0.0.0:9443->9443/tcp, :::9443->9443/tcp portainer
Now, Portainer is successfully running on public-ip:9443
If everything goes well then the above page where we need to set up our login has to show up. If this is not showing up check your security group configuration and also running docker containers. Next click on Get Started then our environment will show up by default it will be having only one environment ie local.
The next, step would be configuring Ngnix Reverse Proxy Manager and connecting domains to these applications.
Install Ngnix Reverse Proxy Manager
Nginx Proxy Manager enables you to easily forward to your websites running at home or otherwise, including free SSL, without having to know too much about Nginx or Letsencrypt.
- Launch the Nginx Proxy Manager docker container with the following command:
sudo docker run -d \ --name=nginx-proxy-manager \ -p 81:8181 \ -p 80:8080 \ -p 443:4443 \ -v /docker/appdata/nginx-proxy-manager:/config:rw \ jlesage/nginx-proxy-manager
/docker/appdata/nginx-proxy-manager: This is where the application stores its configuration, log and any files needing persistency.
Browse to public-ip:81 to access the Nginx Proxy Manager web interface.
This shows that Ngnix Reverse Proxy Manager is successfully running.
Default login credentials are
- Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Password: changeme
After entering these credentials it will ask us to set new login credentials. This completed the installation process next step is to link the domain using Cloudflare DNS.
This is the most simple part. First, make sure you have a domain and you have added that domain to Cloudflare. How to add a new domain to Cloudflare ?
First, create a Type A record for the name using @ and for IPv4 use public-ip of the cloud instance also remember to disable the proxy status for now.
Now, create two CNAME records with names p.@ and n.@ and for Target use @ also remember to disable proxy status for now.
The next, step is to link the subdomain to Ngnix Reverse Proxy Manager. Head over to the proxy manager click on Dashboard then click on Proxy Hosts. Let's create a proxy host now
Refer to the above images and enter the required fields respectively. As Portainer runs on HTTPS scheme choose the correct scheme whereas Ngnix Reverse Proxy Manager runs on HTTP. In place of forwarding Hostname input to your local instance IP, you will find that in either in elastic IP configuration or instance configuration.
Follow similar steps for Ngnix Reverse Proxy Manager
Now, we can enable proxy status in Cloudflare DNS also remove PORT 81, 9443 from AWS EC2 Security Group. Also, Portianer & Ngnix Proxy Manager is now accessible from the sub-domain setup.
Proxy is also working perfectly fine. The public-ip of the cloud instance is completely hidden thus providing a shield against DDOS attacks.